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اعتماد کنید :

» Representation of Women in Novels A Comparative Study of Persian and Translated Novels

توسط: pardazesh در 26-03-1395, 10:56 | دسته: زبان انگلیسی | تعداد بازدید : 202

The present study is an attempt to investigate the image represented of female and male characters in best-selling novels. Narratives are believed to play an important role in reinforcing or naturalizing stereotypical images of women and men, since the readers identify themselves with the heroines or heroes of stories. Therefore, the major characters of the best-selling novels written in the past three decades in Iran were analyzed and compared to the major characters of the best-selling translated novels. Each character was analyzed in terms of her/his personality type, sociological role, appearance, gender judgment, concerns, education, relationship and characterization. The data concerning the characters were first tabulated in terms of gender for each book. The male and female characters in translated and non-translated novels were compared with each other in different gender-specific groups.

The results of the overall analysis demonstrated that translated novels can have a reinforcing effect on the stereotypical image of women; however, the reverse is true for male characters. The image represented of male characters in translated novels seems to demystify the stereotypical image of men in Persian novels. In fact the differences between female characters of translated and non-translated novels, between female and male characters of translated novels, and even between female characters of non-translated novels and male characters of translated novels is far less than the gap between female and male characters of non-translated novels. This may be a reflection of the domination of patriarchal attitude in contemporary Persian literature.

 

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» A Psychological Reading of Toni Morrison's Beloved and Song of Solomon, in the Light of Trauma Studies (PTSD), Revolving around: "Traumatic Past", "Rememory", and "Identity Crisis"

توسط: pardazesh در 26-03-1395, 10:49 | دسته: زبان انگلیسی | تعداد بازدید : 197

Morrison's Beloved and Song of Solomon could be viewed as paragons of trauma fiction. In the light of PTSD Studies, Sigmund Freud's, Cathy Caruth's, and Robert Jay Lifton's attitudes, three concepts of "traumatic past", "rememory", and "identity crisis" have been studied.

Morrison's Beloved and Song of Solomon are stories about traumatized people, victims of slavery, and the brutal history of the past, in which Morrison moves her readers throughout the non-linear memories of her traumatized characters. Since no narrative of trauma can be told in a linear way, Morrison tries to depict the overwhelming power of trauma through a non-linear narrative, episodic delivery, and flashbacks. Accordingly, the readers are compelled to concoct the disjointed and fragmented memories in order to solve the riddle of the text, in which past, present, and future are intermingled.

Morrison's Beloved and Song of Solomon are bound up with psychoanalytic formulation. The figuration of trauma in the ghost extremely resembles Freud's assertion about the return of the repressed traumatic past. Morrison's narrative clearly depicts the belated experience of trauma by immersing the readers in an untimeliness, as if the readers get lost in character's traumatic memories.

Through resurrecting the ghosts of slavery, Morrison tries to depict the inevitable belated intrusion and the haunting power of traumatic memories. The ghostly return of the past in both novels indicates the fact that what is absent is not necessarily gone or vanished. By giving the ghosts a renewed voice and life, Morrison claims that although the brutal system of slavery is over and already passed on, its after-effects, and consequences can never be fully passed on since the haunting remains, and the survivors are left to wrestle with what they have tried to forget and repress.

The ghostly return of the past has an aporetic role in both novels, which appears both as the pain and the cure and results in different consequences in each novel due to which Morrison tries to illustrate the life of slavery as an interminable challenge for the survivors who have been touched by it even after freedom. Accordingly she depicts survival as a great crisis and an everlasting contest which coerces the survivors into confronting their sordid repressed traumatic past and re-establishing their identity and integrity of self.

This thesis aims to trace the above mentioned notions in Morrison's Beloved and Song of Solomon to reveal the implicit potentiality and consequences of reading her works in the light of Trauma Studies.

Keyterms: Trauma, Rememory, Belatedness, Aporia, Survival

 

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» A Comparative Study of the Concepts of Love, Man, Nature and Silence in Rumi’s and Whitman’s Poetry

توسط: pardazesh در 26-03-1395, 10:41 | دسته: زبان انگلیسی | تعداد بازدید : 274

This thesis examines the four motifs of love, man, nature and silence in the works of Rumi and Whitman. The motifs were chosen from among the most frequent ones in the works of the two poets which somehow determine their mindset and worldview. Each motif will be investigated in a separate entry, which is itself subcategorized for a detailed examination of the underlying themes.

     Regarding the fact that a genuine comparative work investigates the similarities as well as the differences, this research aims at both of them equally for a complete and thorough understanding of the two poets who had great influences on their cultures. Approaching the two poets not from the French school’s angle, to avoid its positivistic rules, but from the American school’s side which is more resilient and speaks simply of literature, the thesis is after applying thematology on the method of rapproachement.

     Building on the work of the comparatist Jost who, basing his theories on the German system of thematology, considers what is normally known as theme in the Anglo-Saxon world as being motif and vice versa, and investigating some other comparatists’ notions like Aldridge, Prawer and Wiesstein on thematology, the thesis argues that in spite of numerous thematic similarities between the two, there are differences which are the result of the poets cultural, geographical, political background not to mention the huge time gap between them.

Keywords: Rumi, Whitman, American School, Thematology, Rapproachement

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» Critical Formalist approaches to Hamlet

توسط: pardazesh در 24-04-1394, 08:07 | دسته: زبان انگلیسی | تعداد بازدید : 324

 Critical Formalist approaches to Hamlet

 

Introduction :

From its premiere at the turn of the 17th century, Hamlet has been one of Shakespeare's best-known, most-imitated, and most-analyzed plays. The character of Hamlet played a critical role in Sigmund Freud's explanation of the Oedipus complexand thus influenced modern psychology.[1] Even within the narrower field of literature, the play's influence has been strong. As Foakes writes, "No other character's name in Shakespeare's plays, and few in literature, have come to embody an attitude to life [...] and been converted into a noun in this way."[2]

 

 

 

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» Research About John Donne

توسط: pardazesh در 24-04-1394, 08:07 | دسته: زبان انگلیسی | تعداد بازدید : 344

 

Research About John Donne

 

John Donne  (between 24 January and 19 June 1572[1] – 31 March 1631) was an English poet, satirist, lawyer and Protestant priest. He is considered the pre-eminent representative of the metaphysical poets. His works are noted for their strong, sensual style and include sonnets, love poetry, religious poems, Latin translations,epigramselegies, songs, satires and sermons. His poetry is noted for its vibrancy of language and inventiveness of metaphor, especially compared to that of his contemporaries. Donne's style is characterised by abrupt openings and various paradoxes, ironies and dislocations. These features, along with his frequent dramatic or everyday speech rhythms, his tense syntax and his tough eloquence, were both a reaction against the smoothness of conventional Elizabethan poetry and an adaptation into English of European baroque and mannerist techniques

 

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د

 

 


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» The Criterion of intelligibity of Pronunciation

توسط: pardazesh در 24-04-1394, 08:07 | دسته: زبان انگلیسی | تعداد بازدید : 318

 

 The Criterion of intelligibity of Pronunciation

Introduction

 

     English language plays a dominant role in modern world. Each of us has ever been encountered with the necessity to learn the language for many reasons. For many people the most important function of any language is communication with other people when travelling, studying or working in a foreign country. Therefore, the trend of learning English is increasing and the opportunities for the actual use of the language are becoming more frequent. The topic of this work is based largely on the communicative function of language – speaking and listening. We intend to deal with an aspect of English which is, in our opinion, often neglected in English lessons – pronunciation testing and its assessment.

            The idea arose from our belief that teaching pronunciation should be a part of a syllabus of any English course, moreover, should be included from the very beginning. One reason for this statement is that it is generally believed that the age factor is influencial and small children can learn pronunciation more easily than the older or adults. The next benefit of pronunciation learning is its possible effect on listening skills. In order that our communication is comfortable for both sides, we need to understand as well as our speaking should be understandable. So the practice of our pronunciation helps other people to understand us better.

     Nowadays, almost every coursebook offers pronunciation practice but any suggestions on giving such a structured feedback like those on other aspects of language are rare. We will try to present ways of testing pronounciation and try to deal with the possible ways of the consequent assessment.

            Apart from the objective methods of testing pronunciation which are not usually available in schools, there are other – more often used – subjective methods. These methods are based on the assessor’s impression, so certain criteria should be followed to reach as reliable results as possible.

            The first part of this work will present the tasks needed to be considered for efficient learning and teaching – the role of the teacher and the learner and the factors which have an effect on the whole pronunciation teaching and learning process.

            Next, we will give an overview of the testing methods in connection with the two approaches to impression-based assessment – atomistic and holistic.

            The last research part will implement the theory into practice and find out about what results can be actually brought by the pronunciation testing and what problems in assessment may be encountered

 

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» How Teachers Learn to Engage Students in Active Learning

توسط: pardazesh در 29-02-1393, 20:27 | دسته: زبان انگلیسی | تعداد بازدید : 515

The educational reform agenda and educational researchers tell us that active engagement in learning is an important goal for our students. Can it really occur? How do teachers engage students in active learning? And, just as importantly, how do teachelresa rn to help students become actively involved in learning? The National Center for Research on Teacher Learning (NCRTL)* focuses its research on teacher learning in order to understand how teachelresa rn to teach subject matter in ways that actively engage students in learning. For centuries educators assumed that student learning consisted of rote memorization of new knowledge--students listened to lectures and read books, their progress measured by their ability to recite what they had

 

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